Onsite Sewerage System Installation

This page contains links and information relevant to sewerage system installation courses, it was originally developed for the old ES940 installer course written by Ian Ralston and given by Royal Roads University and WOWTC but is generally applicable to installation. For PDF files, right click and choose "save as".



New tank float setting worksheet, based on a tank diagram, one page. This is available in PDF format (note when printing to select "scale to printer margins") without units (to fill in your own preferred units before photocopying), and in units of feet/usgals, inches/usgals, meters/litres. Also available as just the tank graphic, for use once you have the "V" specific volume figure for a tank. Note the new reccomendation for reserve volume at 15% of Design Flow and Alarm Reserve Volume at 50% (minimum) of Daily Design Flow. For timed dosing use the just the tank graphic for timed dosing.

Spreadsheet program for float setting, in cm and L and in inches and IMP gallons developed by Kelly Karr. If you do not have MSOffice, use Open Office. Save the spreadsheet to your computer before using it (right click and choose "save as"). If you see any areas that need improvement, please let us know...

Blank level booking sheet

Useful web links


Contact Ian Ralston

Useful web links

This page contains links to various websites containing information relevant to the ES940 course, or containing links to such information. Please note that their inclusion here does not suggest that the information has been checked for validity or for relevance to the BC environment, nor does it suggest any endorsement of companies or products mentioned. Most of these links open in a new window.

Some of the documents are as links to PDF files, these I suggest you right click and choose to "save as" somewhere on your computer to keep them for future reference. Other links open in a new window.

If you have a link that you think should be here, please e-mail me at webmaster@traxdev.com


General sites

Design links page, Drawing links page

Acrobat Reader (for reading and converting PDF files).

2007 Version 2 BC Standard Practice Manual and appendices at Ministry of Health web site, as PDF.

BC Standard Practice Manual at Ministry of Health website, as PDF.

US Environmental Protection Agency main site for Septic Systems. This has a large number of useful publications, including the EPA manual referenced in the ES930 course:
Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual As PDF (note that this is the whole manual -- a 20MB download). There is also the older EPA manual, which is still of some interest, particularly as it is the one used by Washington State. The publications page is here. where you can download sections of the manual.

Washington State Department Of Health Wastewater Management Publications
Referred to at many points in the ES930 course this site contains links to a number of useful design guideline documents and technical reviews from the Technical Review Committee .

The SSWMP Catalogue:
Our Complete Publications List from The University of Wisconsin-Madison Small-Scale Waste Management Project which is where Tyler and Converse work. There are various PDF documents available on a sub page.

Alberta Private Sewage Systems Standard of Practice 1999 Handbook
This site contains useful guidelines for system design, with some very simplified worksheets.

Nova Scotia CWRS Web Site
This includes information on the Pask In Situ Permeameter (see below for Wyoming site with online copy of Finnemore's paper), links to the Mounding and Nitrate movement software and the Sloping Sand Filter.

National Small Flows Clearinghouse
Has a large archive of publications.

Delaware ground water discharges section
Another site with design guidelines, includes a section on sand lined trenches.

Center for Decentralized Wastewater Management (CDWM), Tennessee.


Wake County's Well, Wastewater and Development division with info on their pressure manifolds.

Publications of the Headquarters, United States Army Corps of Engineers -- all sorts of technical manuals...

Sewage Wiki page (and sewage treatment)--add your own information

Open office office suite, works well and serves to mimic and replace MS Office. Free.

Cute FTP serves for creating pdf prints of documents, useful for keeping electronic versions and sharing. Works as a printer service. Free.

Operation and maintenance plan as used by Betty Holskog, in Microsoft publisher template format. Right click on link and choose "save as" or similar.


Directory of links sites

On-Site Wastewater Information Sources and Links from CWRS



BC One Call 1-800-474-6886

Occupational Health & Safety Regulation BC
Personalized Regulation, to customize the Regulation for your situation
Search Regulation

WCB-- Work Safe BC
WCB publications by topic

OSHA, U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Manual

Information on occupational first aid requirements.


Soil, soil water and soil management

GeotechniCAL is where ground engineering meets education technology. (CAL stands for computer-assisted learning.), site with information on soil mechanics presented in help file format.

University of Missouri Soil Mechanics course materials--Click on link for CE215

Soil texture triangle hydraulic properties online calculator And download of calculator from USDA

Caterpillar Compaction Manual

Soil compaction website (based on same Multiquip manual as the course slide show)

Road compaction website project


Survey and measurement

Cave surveying site, has alot of useful information on simple surveying techniques

Cave surveying page on measurement error correction

Tape use including corrections (actually aimed at creating a bicycle calibration course..)

Virtual online levelling course module

Geomagnetism Magnetic declination calculator Very useful

Page on geomagnetism with explanations, USGS geomagnetism site

Compass use (orienteering) pages

Review and instructions for Cammenga US Army lensatic compass (PDF), hosted on the Cammenga site.

Historical surveying site by David Manthey, this link is to a page showing how wo make various chaining instruments. He also has instructions on making a Gunter's Chain and has re plublished a couple of historical survey texts.

MapTools site with instructions/tutorial on GPS use and UTM coordinate system

CDGPS Canadian differential GPS system, based around a $1500 diferential correction receiver and gives 1m accuracy all over Canada with hand held GPS units (0.3m with dual frquency GPS units) with no subscription cost, Novatel units also work with the worldwide subsrciption based ($800 a year) Omnistar system.

Point of beginning magazine articles, require registration to access them. Have varioius survey articles archived; e.g..
On checking layout
Nice graphic showing how to approximate a right angle ("clapping a ninety") and on using a right angle prism

Maths site, very good covers just about everything.

Some thoughts on solo surveying, by a forester.


Plane table information




Key system components

Plastic Pipe Institute HDPE handbook

Uni-Bell technical literature , including handbook for PVC pipe (for large PVC pipe with socket and bell joints)

IPEX technical library (sign up required). Includes Philmac information

Zabel pumps and filters

Orenco, includes online document library

Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association (PPFA), includes publications and links to member sites

Lasco make fittings and have extensive technical information (including the argument about teflon tape and plastic fittings), also have a handy water hammer calculator

An apprentices handbook for plastic pipes, as PDF.

Example of a non hardening soft set plumbing sealant, from Whitlam (TU-555).

Chemical Compatability with CPVC Pipe & Fittings.


Subsurface Wastewater Infiltration Systems (SWIS)

Wisconsin mound (sand mound)

See also the CWRS website above for the sloping sand filter.

Wisconsin Mound basic description

Wisconsin Mound Soil Absorption System: Siting, Design and Construction Manual (Revised Jan. 2000)
This is a link to the SSWMP document by Converse as PDF .

The Washington State Mound Design guidelines (includes the mound design worksheet and diagrams as used in the course). A PDF document

Intelligent Valve Monitor for KRain series 6000 Hydrotek valves, being developed in PEI.



Lecture on tire selection PDF

Lecture on traction (wheeled vehicles) PDF

Moving the Earth, 5th Edition by Nichols--check at Amazon

Interesting paper on equipment repair cost factors PDF








Contact us:
E-mail us or call Ian Ralston at 250-246-4774
TRAX Developments Ltd., Box 9-6, Thetis Island, British Columbia, V0R 2Y0, Canada.